India's new education policy in 2020

The new education policy in 2020 is India's education policy. It was announced by the Government of India on 29 July 2020. It provides the first new change to the Indian education system since the new education policy released in 1986. Although the policy is not clear about which authority it has been issued, as it is not a policy passed by Parliament or a policy brought under any ordinance. It is also not clear what exactly this policy is and its text has not yet been made public by the government. 
india's new education policy 2020

The format that is prevalent in most newspapers and news agencies is not an official text but an informal document that these agencies are making available by the government, while the government itself has not made any such document available to the public. The draft or text is not on any government website. The format that is available right now is called the 2019 format and there are huge contradictions in what is coming in the news.

The central government approved the new education policy on Wednesday. Many major changes have been made in the education policy, which came about 34 years later, from school education to higher education. If the burden of board examination will be reduced on children, there will now be only one regulator for higher education. Earlier studies will not be useless if you miss the studies. A certificate will be given on completion of one year of studies and a diploma certificate on two years of studies. 

India's new education policy 2020 was approved in the cabinet meeting chaired by Prime Minister Narendra Modi. It envisages achieving a 100% admission rate from pre-primary to higher secondary by 2030 and 50% in higher education. There is a target to increase government spending on education from 4.43 percent to six percent of GDP.

India's New Education Policy in 2020

In the Directive Principles of Policy of the Indian Constitution, it has been said that mandatory and free education should be made for children from 6 to 14 years. The University Education Commission was formed in 1948 under the chairmanship of Dr. Radhakrishnan. Since then, the formulation of the National Education Policy also started. Based on the recommendations of the Kothari Commission (1964–1966), a proposal for significant change was first passed in 1968 under Prime Minister Indira Gandhi.

In August 1985, a document named 'Challenge of Education' was prepared in which various sections of India (intellectual, social, political, professional, administrative, etc.) gave their education comments and in 1986 the Government of India drafted the 'New Education Policy 1986' got ready. The most important feature of this policy was that it accepted a uniform educational structure for the entire country and most states adopted the 10 + 2 + 3 structure. It was released under the Prime Ministership of Rajiv Gandhi.

This policy was amended in 1992. The Bharatiya Janata Party's election manifesto in the 2014 general election included the topic of formulating new education policy. In 2019, the Ministry of Human Resource Development started seeking public advice for new education policy.

Leading Change in India's Education

In India's new education policy 2020, it has been decided to rename the Ministry of Human Resources as the Ministry of Education. It has a provision to set up the Higher Education Commission of India as a single body for all higher education (except legal and medical education). Music, sports, yoga, etc. will be added to the main course instead of the supporting course or additional course. The education system aims to spend a total of 6 percent of GDP, which currently stands at 4.43%. Am7 Fill will be abolished. Now to go into research, after a three-year bachelor's degree, one-year post-graduation can be admitted to Ph.D.

Special emphasis has been laid on the training of teachers in the policy. For comprehensive reform, it has been recommended to include teacher training and all education programs at the level of universities or colleges. Attempts will also be made to prevent arbitrary fees and increases in private schools. Earlier, subjects were selected according to the stream, but now it has also been changed. Students who are doing engineering can also study music along with their subjects. 

The National Research Foundation will be brought on the lines of the National Science Foundation, which will include science as well as a social science in the curriculum. The policy calls for an emphasis on mathematics and language in the first and second grades and the writing of children in fourth and fifth grades.

In schools, 5 + 3 + 3 + 4 formats will be replaced instead of 10 + 2 formats. The first five years will include three years of pre-primary school and foundation stage including class one and class two. Whereas government schools used to start from class one, now class one will start after three years of pre-primary. This is followed by three years of classes 3-5. After this, the middle stage of 3 years will come i.e. Class 6 to 8. The fourth stage (classes 9 to 12) will be 4 years old, where earlier there was freedom to choose subjects from 11 and now it will be from 9.

The mother tongue will be used as a medium of instruction from the first to the fifth. In this, an attempt was also made to abolish Ratta Vidya which is considered to be a major flaw in the existing system. For some reason, the students leave the course in the middle of higher education. After doing this, they get nothing and they have to start afresh for a degree. In the new policy, there is a provision to give certificates on leaving the first-year course, diploma on leaving the second year and degree on leaving the last year.

20 special things about the new education policy

1. 10 + 2 finish in schools, now 5 + 3 + 3 + 4 formants will start

Now the first five years of school will include three years of pre-primary school and foundation stage including class one and class 2. A new curriculum will be prepared for these five years of study. The next three-year stage will be from class 3 to 5. After this, the middle stage of 3 years will come i.e. the stage from class 6 to 8. Now the child will be given professional and skill education from the sixth. Internships will also be conducted at the local level. The fourth stage (classes 9 to 12) will be 4 years old. In this, students will have the freedom to choose the subject. Fashion designing along with science or mathematics will also be the freedom to study. Earlier, classes 1 to 10 were general education. From class 11, subjects could be selected.

As of now, government schools start in the first grade. But after the new education policy is implemented, the first child will have to go through the foundation stage of five years. The last two years of the foundation stage will be of the first grade and second grade. After five years of the foundation stage, the child will move to the third grade. That means 5 more levels will be made for children before the third grade in government schools.

In the new school education system of 5 + 3 + 3 + 4, the first five years for 3 to 8 years old children, then the subsequent three years for 8 to 11 years old children, then the subsequent three years 11 to 14 years old children. The last 4 years are set for children between 14 and 18 years.

2. Employment education from sixth grade

Dr. Kasturirangan, who is heading the committee formed to finalize the new education policy, said that now the child will be given professional and skill education from class VI. Internships will also be conducted at the local level. Emphasis will be laid on vocational education and skill development. The new education policy will not create unemployment. In school, the child will be given the necessary professional education.

3. 10th and 12th board exams will be easy

Major changes will be made in the board exams of class X and X. The importance of board examinations will be minimized. There are several important suggestions. Such as conducting examinations twice a year, dividing them into two parts objective and explanatory categories. The main focus in the board examination will be on the knowledge test so that the tendency to rote among students is over. Students are always under pressure regarding board exams and depend on coaching to get more marks. But in the future, they can get freedom from it. The education policy states that various boards will prepare a practical model of board examinations in the coming times. Such as annual, semester, and modular board examinations.

Under the new policy, examinations will also be held in classes three, five, and eighth. While the 10th and 12th board examinations will continue in changed format.

4. Study in mother tongue till 5th grade

In the new education policy, education will be provided in the mother tongue only until the fifth and up to the eighth as far as possible.

5. The performance of children will be assessed in schools

Children's report card will change. They will be assessed at three levels. One will be a student himself, another is a classmate and the third is his teacher. National Assessment Center-Parakh will be created which will periodically test the learning ability of children. About two crore children who have dropped out of education through 100% enrollment will be admitted again.

6. 3-4 year degree in graduation, multiple entries, and exit system

Higher Education Secretary Amit Khare said that the new policy has introduced multiple entry and exit (multi-level entry and exit) system. In today's system, if after four years of engineering or six semesters, you are unable to study for any reason, then there is no solution, but in the multiple entry and exit system, certificate after one year, diploma after two years and 3-4 years. The degree will be available year after year. This is a big decision in the interest of the students.

The 3-year degree is for students who do not have to pursue higher education and do not go into research. At the same time, students going into research will have to do a 4-year degree. Students doing a 4 years degree will be able to do an MA in one year. According to the new education policy, if a student leaves an engineering course within 2 years, then he will be awarded a diploma. This will bring great relief to the engineering students. A five-year joint graduate master's course will be introduced. The MPhil will be scrapped and there will be an option to quit after one year in the postgraduate course. The teachers will be upgraded through the National Mentoring Plan.

B. Ed. will be 4 years old. The 4-year B.Ed degree will be the minimum qualification to become a teacher from 2030. According to the policy, review and revision of professional standards will take place in 2030 and every 10 years thereafter. Teachers will be recruited through effective and transparent processes. The promotion will be merit-based. The performance will be assessed periodically from several sources.

7. MPhil end in the new policy

After the implementation of the country's new education policy, students will no longer have to do MPhil. The course of MPhil has been repealed in the new education policy. After the implementation of the new education policy, now students will do graduation, post-graduation, and then directly Ph.D. A 4-year graduation degree program can be followed by an MA and then a Ph.D. directly without an M.Phil. MPhil courses have been scrapped under the new education policy. This is considered a big change.

8. UGC, NCTE, and AICTE will end, a regulatory body will be formed

The era of UGC AICTE is over. Higher Education Secretary Amit Khare said that UGC, AICTE, and NCTE will be a regulator in higher education. The process of affiliation with universities will be completely abolished in 15 years by giving colleges autonomy (Graded Otonami).

9. Common exam offer to colleges

Under the new education policy, a Common Entrance Exam will be offered for admission to higher educational institutions. It will not be mandatory for the institute. The National Examination Agency will conduct this examination.

10. The special syllabus will be prepared at pre-primary level in school

School Education Secretary Anita Karwal said that ten major reforms have been approved in school education and higher education. The new policy focuses on the use of technology. A special curriculum will be designed for pre-primary education. Under this, children between the age of three to six years will come. By 2025, basic literacy and numerology will be ensured to students up to class three. Middle classes will be completely changed. Classes will be taught between six and eight subjects.

11. There will be a mechanism to control the fees of schools, colleges

Khare said that higher education institutions will get approval on the basis of online self-declaration. The current Inspector Raj will end. At present, there are different rules for Central University, State University, Deemed University, and Private University. In the future, all rules will be made equal. A mechanism to control fees will also be prepared.

12. Preparation of National Research Foundation

All types of scientific and social research will be controlled by creating the National Research Foundation. Higher educational institutions will be converted into multi-disciplinary institutions. By 2030 there will be a higher educational institution in or around every district. Emphasis has been laid on the use of technology in education. These include plans to make online education content in regional languages, virtual labs, digital libraries, equipping schools, teachers, and students with digit resources.

13. School education, higher education as well as vocational education like agricultural education, legal education, medical education, and technical education will also be under the purview of the new education policy.

14. All subjects like arts, music, crafts, sports, yoga, community service will also be included in the curriculum. These will not be called adjunct courses.

15. Emphasis on online education

The new reforms emphasize technology and online education. It has been said to make learning interesting by using different apps through computers, laptops, and phones, etc.

16. 'Bal Bhavan' will be established in every district as a special boarding school to participate in arts, career, and sports-related activities.

17. We have different rules for deemed universities, central universities, and standalone institutions. The rules will be the same for all under the new education policy.

18. MHRD renamed

The Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) has been renamed as Ministry of Education.

19. Tri-Language Formula

Students will be given the opportunity to choose Sanskrit as an option at all levels of school and higher education. The tri-language formula will also include this option. Accordingly, no language will be imposed on any student. Other traditional languages ​​and literature of India will also be available as an option. Students will have to participate in an enjoyable project/activity on the languages ​​of India under the 'Ek Bharat Shreshtha Bharat Initiative' sometime during grades 6-8. Korean, Thai, French, German, Spanish, Portuguese, Russian languages ​​will be offered at the secondary level.

20. Permission for a foreign university to open a campus in India and expand scholarship portal

The new education policy will allow foreign universities to open campuses in India. Experts say that with these students of India will be able to take admission in the best institutes and universities in the world. They will not have to go abroad.

The national scholarship portal will be extended for SC, ST, OBC, and SEDGS students. About 2 crore children living away from school will be brought back into the mainstream under NEP 2020.